Leviticus 4:1-35


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4:1 VA YEDABER YHVH EL MOSHEH LEMOR

וַיְדַבֵּר יְהוָה אֶל מֹשֶׁה לֵּאמֹר

KJ (King James translation): And the LORD spake unto Moses, saying,

BN (BibleNet translation): Then YHVH spoke to Mosheh, saying:


4:2 DABER EL BENEY YISRA-EL LEMOR NEPHESH KI TECHETA VI SHEGAGAH MI KOL MITSVOT YHVH ASHER LO TE'ASEYNAH VE ASAH ME ACHAT ME HENAH

דַּבֵּר אֶל בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל לֵאמֹר נֶפֶשׁ כִּי תֶחֱטָא בִשְׁגָגָה מִכֹּל מִצְוֹת יְהוָה אֲשֶׁר לֹא תֵעָשֶׂינָה וְעָשָׂה מֵאַחַת מֵהֵנָּה

KJ: Speak unto the children of Israel, saying, If a soul shall sin through ignorance against any of the commandments of the LORD concerning things which ought not to be done, and shall do against any of them:

BN: Speak to the Beney Yisra-El, and tell them: If anyone sins through error, in any of the things which YHVH has commanded not to be done, and shall do any one of them...


The continuity from this verse to the next is curious; verse 1 says NEPHESH KI, which means "anyone"; but verse 2 then makes it specific to the Kohen... has a piece of the text gone missing?


4:3 IM HA KOHEN HA MASHIYACH YECHETA LE ASHMAT HA AM VE HIKRIV AL CHATA'TO ASHER CHAT'A PAR BEN BAKAR TAMIM LA YHVH LE CHAT'AT



אִם הַכֹּהֵן הַמָּשִׁיחַ יֶחֱטָא לְאַשְׁמַת הָעָם וְהִקְרִיב עַל חַטָּאתוֹ אֲשֶׁר חָטָא פַּר בֶּן בָּקָר תָּמִים לַיהוָה לְחַטָּאת

KJ: If the priest that is anointed do sin according to the sin of the people; then let him bring for his sin, which he hath sinned, a young bullock without blemish unto the LORD for a sin offering.

BN: If the anointed Kohen shall sin in such a way that it brings guilt on the people, then let him offer to YHVH, for his sin which he has sinned, a young bullock without blemish for a sin-offering.
MASHIYACH: meaning "anointed". Not to be confused with MOSHI'AH, which is the word that gives Messiah, though alas the two invariably are (even, today, among Jewish scholars familiar with both Yehudit and modern Hebrew!).


4:4 VE HEVI ET HA PAR EL PETACH OHEL MO'ED LIPHNEY YHVH VE SAMACH ET YADO AL ROSH HA PAR VE SHACHAT ET HA PAR LIPHNEY YHVH



וְהֵבִיא אֶת הַפָּר אֶל פֶּתַח אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד לִפְנֵי יְהוָה וְסָמַךְ אֶת יָדוֹ עַל רֹאשׁ הַפָּר וְשָׁחַט אֶת הַפָּר לִפְנֵי יְהוָה

KJ: And he shall bring the bullock unto the door of the tabernacle of the congregation before the LORD; and shall lay his hand upon the bullock's head, and kill the bullock before the LORD.

BN: And he shall bring the bullock to the door of the tent of meeting before YHVH; and he shall lay his hand upon the head of the bullock, and kill the bullock before YHVH.


This time it is the Kohen who performs the sacrifice, but only because it's his personal sacrifice, for his own sin.



4:5 VE LAKACH HA KOHEN HA MASHIYACH MI DAM HA PAR VE HEVI OTO EL OHEL MO'ED

וְלָקַח הַכֹּהֵן הַמָּשִׁיחַ מִדַּם הַפָּר וְהֵבִיא אֹתוֹ אֶל אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד

KJ: And the priest that is anointed shall take of the bullock's blood, and bring it to the tabernacle of the congregation:

BN: And the anointed Kohen shall take some of the blood from the bullock, and bring it to the tent of meeting.


4:6 VE TAVAL HA KOHEN ET ETSBA'O BA DAM VE HIZAH MIN HA DAM SHEVA PE'AMIM LIPHNEY YHVH ET PENEY PAROCHET HA KODESH



וְטָבַל הַכֹּהֵן אֶת אֶצְבָּעוֹ בַּדָּם וְהִזָּה מִן הַדָּם שֶׁבַע פְּעָמִים לִפְנֵי יְהוָה אֶת פְּנֵי פָּרֹכֶת הַקֹּדֶשׁ

KJ: And the priest shall dip his finger in the blood, and sprinkle of the blood seven times before the LORD, before the vail of the sanctuary.

BN: And the Kohen shall dip his finger in the blood, and sprinkle some of the blood seven times before YHVH, in front of the veil of the sanctuary.


SHEVA PE'AMIM: seven times


4:7 VE NATAN HA KOHEN MIN HA DAM AL KARNOT MIZBACH KETORET HA SAMIM LIPHNEY YHVH ASHER BE OHEL MO'ED VE ET KOL DAM HA PAR YISHPOCH EL YESOD MIZBACH HA OLAH ASHER PETACH OHEL MO'ED

וְנָתַן הַכֹּהֵן מִן הַדָּם עַל קַרְנוֹת מִזְבַּח קְטֹרֶת הַסַּמִּים לִפְנֵי יְהוָה אֲשֶׁר בְּאֹהֶל מוֹעֵד וְאֵת כָּל דַּם הַפָּר יִשְׁפֹּךְ אֶל יְסוֹד מִזְבַּח הָעֹלָה אֲשֶׁר פֶּתַח אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד

KJ: And the priest shall put some of the blood upon the horns of the altar of sweet incense before the LORD, which is in the tabernacle of the congregation; and shall pour all the blood of the bullock at the bottom of the altar of the burnt offering, which is at the door of the tabernacle of the congregation.

BN: And the Kohen shall put some of the blood before YHVH, on the horns of the altar of sweet incense, which is in the tent of meeting; and all the remaining blood of the bullock he shall pour out at the base of the altar of burnt-offering, which is at the door of the tent of meeting.



This appears to suggest three separate altars, the main (golden?) altar for sacrifice, plus separate altars for the ketoret (incense) and the olah (thanksgiving). Is that right? (Click here for a desert answer; here for a First and probably Second Temple answer)


The latter two are here called MIZBACH, but the former MIZBE'ACH; is that the standard differentiation?




4:8  AL HA KEREV VE ET KOL HA CHELEV ASHER AL HA KEREV

עַל הַקֶּרֶב וְאֵת כָּל הַחֵלֶב אֲשֶׁר עַל הַקֶּרֶב

KJ: And he shall take off from it all the fat of the bullock for the sin offering; the fat that covereth the inwards, and all the fat that is upon the inwards,

BN: And all the fat from the bullock of the sin-offering he shall remove; the fat that covers the innards, and all the fat that is on the innards.


4:9 VE ET SHETEY HA KELAYOT VE ET HA CHELEV ASHER ALEYHEN ASHER AL HA KESALIM VE ET HA YOTERET AL HA KAVED AL HA KELAYOT YESIYRENAH



וְאֵת שְׁתֵּי הַכְּלָיֹת וְאֶת הַחֵלֶב אֲשֶׁר עֲלֵיהֶן אֲשֶׁר עַל הַכְּסָלִים וְאֶת הַיֹּתֶרֶת עַל הַכָּבֵד עַל הַכְּלָיוֹת יְסִירֶנָּה

KJ: And the two kidneys, and the fat that is upon them, which is by the flanks, and the caul above the liver, with the kidneys, it shall he take away,

BN: And the two kidneys, and the fat that is on them, and the fat around the loins, and the lobe above the liver, which he shall take away with the kidneys..


4:10 KA ASHER YURAM MI SHOR ZEVACH HA SHELAMIM VE HIKTIYRU HA KOHEN AL MIZBACH HA OLAH

כַּאֲשֶׁר יוּרַם מִשּׁוֹר זֶבַח הַשְּׁלָמִים וְהִקְטִירָם הַכֹּהֵן עַל מִזְבַּח הָעֹלָה

KJ: As it was taken off from the bullock of the sacrifice of peace offerings: and the priest shall burn them upon the altar of the burnt offering.

BN: ... as it was removed from the ox for the peace-offering sacrifice, and the Kohen shall make them smoke on the altar of burnt-offering.


4:11 VE ET OR HA PAR VE ET KOL BESARO AL ROSHO VE AL KERA'AV VE KIRBO U PHIRSHO


וְאֶת עוֹר הַפָּר וְאֶת כָּל בְּשָׂרוֹ עַל רֹאשׁוֹ וְעַל כְּרָעָיו וְקִרְבּוֹ וּפִרְשׁוֹ

KJ: And the skin of the bullock, and all his flesh, with his head, and with his legs, and his inwards, and his dung,

BN: But the skin of the bullock, and all its flesh, with its head, and with its legs, and its innards, and its dung...


4:12 VE HOTSI ET KOL HA PAR EL MI CHUTS LA MACHANEH EL MAKOM TAHOR EL SHEPHECH HA DESHEN VE SARAPH OTO AL ETSIM BA ESH AL SHEPHECH HA DESHEN YISAREPH



וְהוֹצִיא אֶת כָּל הַפָּר אֶל מִחוּץ לַמַּחֲנֶה אֶל מָקוֹם טָהוֹר אֶל שֶׁפֶךְ הַדֶּשֶׁן וְשָׂרַף אֹתוֹ עַל עֵצִים בָּאֵשׁ עַל שֶׁפֶךְ הַדֶּשֶׁן יִשָּׂרֵף

KJ: Even the whole bullock shall he carry forth without the camp unto a clean place, where the ashes are poured out, and burn him on the wood with fire: where the ashes are poured out shall he be burnt.

BN: ... indeed the entrire bullock, he shall carry out of the camp to a clean place, where the ashes can be poured out, and he shall burn it on wood in a bonfire; where the ashes are poured out, that is where it shall be burnt.


Was this hygiene driven? Note that there are burnt-offerings, which nonetheless leave behind some edible matter for the Kohanim (though not for the sacrificer), and then there are burnt-offerings, which are incinerations at a landfill site. The difference appears to lie in the fact that the latter were sin-offerings made by the Kohanim - if the sacrificer cannot eat from such an offering, that must include the Kohanim, and so even the theoretically edible remains of the burnt offering have to be discarded.


pey break


4:13 VE IM KOL ADAT YISRA-EL YISHGU VE NE'ELAM DAVAR ME EYNEY HA KAHAL VE ASU ACHAT MI KOL MITSVOT YHVH ASHER LO TE'ASEYNAH VE ASHEMU



וְאִם כָּל עֲדַת יִשְׂרָאֵל יִשְׁגּוּ וְנֶעְלַם דָּבָר מֵעֵינֵי הַקָּהָל וְעָשׂוּ אַחַת מִכָּל מִצְוֹת יְהוָה אֲשֶׁר לֹא תֵעָשֶׂינָה וְאָשֵׁמוּ

KJ: And if the whole congregation of Israel sin through ignorance, and the thing be hid from the eyes of the assembly, and they have done somewhat against any of the commandments of the LORD concerning things which should not be done, and are guilty;

BN: And if the entire congregation of Yisra-El shall err, the thing being hidden from the eyes of the assembly, and do any of the things which YHVH has commanded not to be done, and are guilty...


It is not immediately clear what might take place to cause a communal sin of this kind. But then there is the Golden Calf, and the mutiny of Korach, and of course epidemics of illness or disease, and even extended droughts and famines were attributed in those times to sin (actually they were attributed to sin in Europe right up until the 20th century and in many parts of the word still are!)


4:14 VE NOD'AH HA CHATA'T ASHER CHAT'U ALEYHA VE HIKRIYVU HA KAHAL PAR BEN BAKAR LE CHATA'T VE HEVIY'U OTO LIPHNEY OHEL MO'ED



וְנוֹדְעָה הַחַטָּאת אֲשֶׁר חָטְאוּ עָלֶיהָ וְהִקְרִיבוּ הַקָּהָל פַּר בֶּן בָּקָר לְחַטָּאת וְהֵבִיאוּ אֹתוֹ לִפְנֵי אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד

KJ: When the sin, which they have sinned against it, is known, then the congregation shall offer a young bullock for the sin, and bring him before the tabernacle of the congregation.

BN: When the sin wherein they have sinned becomes known, then the assembly shall offer a young bullock for a sin-offering, and bring it before the tent of meeting.


What we do not know, however, is the precise definition of sin; is it the same as a "crime"? This is significant. If all sin may be redeemed through sacrifice, then these laws are more liberal than any modern state with its prisons let alone its death penalties or the cutting off of hands. But if sin only means transgressions of commandments related to religious matters, then we are in a psycho-spiritual realm, and must understand all this very differently. We shall see. Thus far nothing has been sufficiently defined to help us with this question: it is raised now to draw your attention as we read on.

One answer may lie in a distinction being made here between a CHET and a CHATAT; same root, but presumably a difference of scale, in the way that a ville is larger than a village.

 


4:15 VE SAMCHU ZIKNEY HA EDAH ET YEDEYHEM AL ROSH HA PAR LIPHNEY YHVH VE SHACHAT ET HA PAR LIPHNEY YHVH

וְסָמְכוּ זִקְנֵי הָעֵדָה אֶת יְדֵיהֶם עַל רֹאשׁ הַפָּר לִפְנֵי יְהוָה וְשָׁחַט אֶת הַפָּר לִפְנֵי יְהוָה

KJ: And the elders of the congregation shall lay their hands upon the head of the bullock before the LORD: and the bullock shall be killed before the LORD.

BN: And the elders of the congregation shall lay their hands upon the head of the bullock before YHVH; and the bullock shall be killed before YHVH.


Which in a sense makes every sacrifice an Azaz-El.


4:16 VE HEVI HA KOHEN HA MASHIYACH MI DAM HA PAR EL OHEL MO'ED



וְהֵבִיא הַכֹּהֵן הַמָּשִׁיחַ מִדַּם הַפָּר אֶל אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד

KJ: And the priest that is anointed shall bring of the bullock's blood to the tabernacle of the congregation:

BN: And the anointed Kohen shall bring some of the blood from the bullock to the tent of meeting.


4:17 VE TAVAL HA KOHEN ETSBA'O MIN HA DAM VE HIZAH SHEVA PE'AMIM LIPHNEY YHVH ET PENEY HA PAROCHET



וְטָבַל הַכֹּהֵן אֶצְבָּעוֹ מִן הַדָּם וְהִזָּה שֶׁבַע פְּעָמִים לִפְנֵי יְהוָה אֵת פְּנֵי הַפָּרֹכֶת

KJ: And the priest shall dip his finger in some of the blood, and sprinkle it seven times before the LORD, even before the vail.

BN: And the Kohen shall dip his finger in the blood, and sprinkle it seven times before YHVH, in front of the veil.


Why ET PENEY and not LIPHNEY? For YHVH it is is LIPHNEY. Three possible answers occur to me: a) an unwillingness for poetical symmetry to repeat Liphney; b) a concern that using Liphney for both allows a misunderstanding of the location of each and risks thereby lowering the position of YHVH or over-exalting that of the veil; c) a superstition against using the accusative form for YHVH. I suspect it is actually none of these, but simply a piece of lazy writing.

Seven times. Always seven times.

4:18 U MIN HA DAM YITEN AL KARNOT HA MIZBE'ACH ASHER LIPHNEY YHVH ASHER BE OHEL MO'ED VE ET KOL HA DAM YISHPOCH EL YESOD MIZBACH HA OLAH ASHER PETACH OHEL MO'ED



וּמִן הַדָּם יִתֵּן עַל קַרְנֹת הַמִּזְבֵּחַ אֲשֶׁר לִפְנֵי יְהוָה אֲשֶׁר בְּאֹהֶל מוֹעֵד וְאֵת כָּל הַדָּם יִשְׁפֹּךְ אֶל יְסוֹד מִזְבַּח הָעֹלָה אֲשֶׁר פֶּתַח אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד

KJ: And he shall put some of the blood upon the horns of the altar which is before the LORD, that is in the tabernacle of the congregation, and shall pour out all the blood at the bottom of the altar of the burnt offering, which is at the door of the tabernacle of the congregation.

BN: And he shall put some of the blood on the horns of the altar which is before YHVH - that is to say, in the tent of meeting - and all the remaining blood he shall pour out at the base of the altar of burnt-offering, which is at the door of the tent of meeting.


The significant variation here being that the blood is poured at the base of the altar, where previously it has been splashed around the horns and at the upper edges. Again, presumably, a difference in scale of the sin being expiated.



4:19 VE ET KOL CHELBO YARIM MIMENU VE HIKTIR HA MIZBECHAH



וְאֵת כָּל חֶלְבּוֹ יָרִים מִמֶּנּוּ וְהִקְטִיר הַמִּזְבֵּחָה

KJ: And he shall take all his fat from him, and burn it upon the altar.

BN: And he shall remove all of its fat, and make it smoke on the altar.


4:20 VE ASAH LA PAR KA ASHER ASAH LE PHAR HA CHATA'T KEN YA'ASEH LO VE CHIPER AL'EHEM HA KOHEN VE NISLACH LAHEM



וְעָשָׂה לַפָּר כַּאֲשֶׁר עָשָׂה לְפַר הַחַטָּאת כֵּן יַעֲשֶׂה לּוֹ וְכִפֶּר עֲלֵהֶם הַכֹּהֵן וְנִסְלַח לָהֶם

KJ: And he shall do with the bullock as he did with the bullock for a sin offering, so shall he do with this: and the priest shall make an atonement for them, and it shall be forgiven them.

BN: Thus shall he do with the bullock; as he did with the bullock of the sin-offering, so shall he do with this one; and the Kohen shall make atonement for them, and they shall be forgiven.


LA PAR...LE PHAR: Why are the two not the same?

The forgiveness of sins, and the ceremonies attached, are not restricted to Yom Kippur, but may take place at any time, indeed do take place daily; the language likewise - Chata't, Selichah, Mechilah, Kapara - is identical. See "The Day of Atonement".


4:21 VE HOTSI ET HA PAR EL MI CHUTS LA MACHANEH VE SARAPH OTO KA ASHER SARAPH ET HA PAR HA RISHON CHATA'T HA KAHAL HU

וְהוֹצִיא אֶת הַפָּר אֶל מִחוּץ לַמַּחֲנֶה וְשָׂרַף אֹתוֹ כַּאֲשֶׁר שָׂרַף אֵת הַפָּר הָרִאשׁוֹן חַטַּאת הַקָּהָל הוּא

KJ: And he shall carry forth the bullock without the camp, and burn him as he burned the first bullock: it is a sin offering for the congregation.

BN: And he shall carry the bullock out of the camp, and burn it as he burned the first bullock; it is the sin-offering for the assembly.


Taking it outside the camp has the same effect as driving the Azaz-El into the desert; this however is a dead animal, holy because sacrificed, rather than a live animal, rendered holy through the act of expulsion; but again the language and form echo Yom Kippur.

pey break


4:22 ASHER NASI YECHETA VE ASAH ACHAT MI KOL MITSVOT YHVH ELOHAV ASHER LO TE'ASEYNAH BI SHEGAGAH VE ASHEM



אֲשֶׁר נָשִׂיא יֶחֱטָא וְעָשָׂה אַחַת מִכָּל מִצְוֹת יְהוָה אֱלֹהָיו אֲשֶׁר לֹא תֵעָשֶׂינָה בִּשְׁגָגָה וְאָשֵׁם

KJ: When a ruler hath sinned, and done somewhat through ignorance against any of the commandments of the LORD his God concerning things which should not be done, and is guilty;

BN: When a ruler sins, and commits through error any one of the many things which YHVH his god has instructed not to be done, and is guilty...


Stated specifically now, we are still in the realm of the universal, and cannot determine what kind of sin it might be: Thou Shalt Not Murder is regarded the same as Observe the Sabbath.


4:23 O HODA ELAV CHATA'TO ASHER CHATA BAH VE HEVI ET KARBANO SE'IR IZIM ZACHAR TAMIM



אוֹ הוֹדַע אֵלָיו חַטָּאתוֹ אֲשֶׁר חָטָא בָּהּ וְהֵבִיא אֶת קָרְבָּנוֹ שְׂעִיר עִזִּים זָכָר תָּמִים

KJ: Or if his sin, wherein he hath sinned, come to his knowledge; he shall bring his offering, a kid of the goats, a male without blemish:

BN: If the sin that he has committed is known to him, he shall bring for his offering a goat, a male without blemish...


4:24 VE SAMACH YADO AL ROSH HA SA'IR VE SHACHAT OTO BI MEKOM ASHER YISHCHAT ET HA OLAH LIPHNEY YHVH CHATA'T HU



וְסָמַךְ יָדוֹ עַל רֹאשׁ הַשָּׂעִיר וְשָׁחַט אֹתוֹ בִּמְקוֹם אֲשֶׁר יִשְׁחַט אֶת הָעֹלָה לִפְנֵי יְהוָה חַטָּאת הוּא

KJ: And he shall lay his hand upon the head of the goat, and kill it in the place where they kill the burnt offering before the LORD: it is a sin offering.

BN: And he shall lay his hand on the head of the goat, and kill it in the place where they kill the burnt-offering before YHVH; it is a sin-offering.



What does the laying-on of hands actually do? Confer a blessing on the sacrifice? Placate the victim so it will go more willingly? Or transfer the sin to its head, making it a form of Azaz-El? See my note to Leviticus 3:2.

Once again the text seems to indicate that the man must do his own killing.

BI MEKOM: Not BIMKOM, which would mean "instead" or "in place of" (see also verses 29 and 33)


4:25 VE LAKACH HA KOHEN HA CHATA'T BE ETSBA'O VE NATAN AL KARNOT MIZBACH HA OLAH VE ET DAMO YISHPOCH EL YESOD MIZBACH HA OLAH



וְלָקַח הַכֹּהֵן מִדַּם הַחַטָּאת בְּאֶצְבָּעוֹ וְנָתַן עַל קַרְנֹת מִזְבַּח הָעֹלָה וְאֶת דָּמוֹ יִשְׁפֹּךְ אֶל יְסוֹד מִזְבַּח הָעֹלָה

KJ: And the priest shall take of the blood of the sin offering with his finger, and put it upon the horns of the altar of burnt offering, and shall pour out his blood at the bottom of the altar of burnt offering.

BN: And the Kohen shall take some of the blood of the sin-offering with his finger, and put it on the horns of the altar of burnt-offering, and the remainder of the blood he shall pour out at the base of the altar of burnt-offering.


EL YESOD MIZBACH: At the base, not on the upper edges or the horns: as noted before, the lower the scale of the sin, the lower on the altar is the blood poured.


4:26 VE ET KOL CHELBO YAKTIR HA MIZBECHAH KE CHELEV ZEVACH HA SHELAMIM VE CHIPER ALAV HA KOHEN MEY CHATA'TO VE NISLACH LO


וְאֶת כָּל חֶלְבּוֹ יַקְטִיר הַמִּזְבֵּחָה כְּחֵלֶב זֶבַח הַשְּׁלָמִים וְכִפֶּר עָלָיו הַכֹּהֵן מֵחַטָּאתוֹ וְנִסְלַח לוֹ

KJ: And he shall burn all his fat upon the altar, as the fat of the sacrifice of peace offerings: and the priest shall make an atonement for him as concerning his sin, and it shall be forgiven him.

BN: And he shall make all its fat smoke on the altar, the same as the fat of the sacrifice of peace-offerings; and the Kohen shall make atonement for him in the matter of his sin, and he shall be forgiven.


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4:27 VE IM NEPHESH ACHAT TECHETA VI SHEGAGAH ME AM HA ARETS BA ASOTAH ACHAT MI MITSVOT YHVH ASHER LO TE'ASEYNAH VE ASHEM



וְאִם נֶפֶשׁ אַחַת תֶּחֱטָא בִשְׁגָגָה מֵעַם הָאָרֶץ בַּעֲשֹׂתָהּ אַחַת מִמִּצְוֹת יְהוָה אֲשֶׁר לֹא תֵעָשֶׂינָה וְאָשֵׁם

KJ: And if any one of the common people sin through ignorance, while he doeth somewhat against any of the commandments of the LORD concerning things which ought not to be done, and be guilty;

BN: And if any one of the common people sin through error, in doing any of the things which YHVH has instructed not to be done, and be guilty...


4:28 O HODA ELAV CHATA'TO ASHER CHATA VE HEVI KARBANO SE'IRAT IZIM TEMIYMAH NEKEVAH AL CHATA'TO ASHER CHATA

אוֹ הוֹדַע אֵלָיו חַטָּאתוֹ אֲשֶׁר חָטָא וְהֵבִיא קָרְבָּנוֹ שְׂעִירַת עִזִּים תְּמִימָה נְקֵבָה עַל חַטָּאתוֹ אֲשֶׁר חָטָא

KJ: Or if his sin, which he hath sinned, come to his knowledge: then he shall bring his offering, a kid of the goats, a female without blemish, for his sin which he hath sinned.

BN: If the sin that he has committed is known to him, then he shall bring for his offering a goat, a female without blemish, for the sin which he has committed.


Here, and with the Nasi above, we are left unclear how he knows; did he realise after doing it, or was it made known to him. Either way, he knows, and the means of expiation is given.

Interesting to see that a female sacrifice is made for certain kinds of sin; females having lower status, even among the animals.

Which also raises the question: can women bring sacrifices? Is there an equivalent of Tselophechad's daughters in this domain? Only men are ever named as bringers of sacrifice, but that could be intended androgynously and universally.

Also note the distinction between sins that are known, and sins that are found out.


4:29 VE SAMACH ET YADO AL ROSH HA CHATA'T VA SHACHAT ET HA CHATA'T BI MEKOM HA OLAH



וְסָמַךְ אֶת יָדוֹ עַל רֹאשׁ הַחַטָּאת וְשָׁחַט אֶת הַחַטָּאת בִּמְקוֹם הָעֹלָה

KJ: And he shall lay his hand upon the head of the sin offering, and slay the sin offering in the place of the burnt offering.

BN: And he shall lay his hand on the head of the sin-offering, and kill the sin-offering in the place of burnt-offering.


Yet again it is stated explicitly: he who has committed the sin must conduct the sacrifice. Taking one's family goat for slaughter may well be difficult, but much easier if you can just hand it over to the slaughterer, and let him do it. But no, it is your sin, you have to accept full responsibility, and that doesn't just mean giving up the animal, it means taking the knife to it. Tough accountability!



4:30 VE LAKACH HA KOHEN MI DAMAH BE ETSBA'O VE NATAN AL KARNOT MIZBACH HA OLAH VE ET KOL DAMAH YISHPOCH EL YESOD HA MIZBE'ACH

וְלָקַח הַכֹּהֵן מִדָּמָהּ בְּאֶצְבָּעוֹ וְנָתַן עַל קַרְנֹת מִזְבַּח הָעֹלָה וְאֶת כָּל דָּמָהּ יִשְׁפֹּךְ אֶל יְסוֹד הַמִּזְבֵּחַ

KJ: And the priest shall take of the blood thereof with his finger, and put it upon the horns of the altar of burnt offering, and shall pour out all the blood thereof at the bottom of the altar.

BN: And the Kohen shall take some of its blood with his finger, and put it on the horns of the altar of burnt-offering, and all of the remainder of its blood he shall pour out at the base of the altar.



4:31  VE ET KOL CHELBAH YASIR KA ASHER HUSAR CHELEV ME'AL ZEVACH HA SHELAMIM VE HIKTIR HA KOHEN HA MIZBECHAH LE REYACH NIYCHO'ACH LA YHVH VE CHIPER ALAV HA KOHEN VE NISLACH LO

וְאֶת כָּל חֶלְבָּהּ יָסִיר כַּאֲשֶׁר הוּסַר חֵלֶב מֵעַל זֶבַח הַשְּׁלָמִים וְהִקְטִיר הַכֹּהֵן הַמִּזְבֵּחָה לְרֵיחַ נִיחֹחַ לַיהוָה וְכִפֶּר עָלָיו הַכֹּהֵן וְנִסְלַח לוֹ

KJ: And he shall take away all the fat thereof, as the fat is taken away from off the sacrifice of peace offerings; and the priest shall burn it upon the altar for a sweet savour unto the LORD; and the priest shall make an atonement for him, and it shall be forgiven him.

BN: And he shall remove all of its fat, as the fat is removed from the peace-offering sacrifice; and the Kohen shall make it smoke on the altar for a sweet savour to YHVH; and the Kohen shall make atonement for him, and he shall be forgiven. 


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4:32 VE IM KEVES YAVI KARBANO LE CHATA'T NEKEVAH TEMIYMAH YEVIY'ENAH



וְאִם כֶּבֶשׂ יָבִיא קָרְבָּנוֹ לְחַטָּאת נְקֵבָה תְמִימָה יְבִיאֶנָּה

KJ: And if he bring a lamb for a sin offering, he shall bring it a female without blemish.

BN: And if he bring a lamb as his offering for a sin-offering, he shall bring a female without blemish.


KEVES: Not KESEV on this occasion


4:33 VA SAMACH ET YADO AL ROSH HA CHATA'T VE SHACHAT OTAH LE CHATA'T BI MEKOM ASHER YISHCHAT ET HA OLAH



וְסָמַךְ אֶת יָדוֹ עַל רֹאשׁ הַחַטָּאת וְשָׁחַט אֹתָהּ לְחַטָּאת בִּמְקוֹם אֲשֶׁר יִשְׁחַט אֶת הָעֹלָה

KJ: And he shall lay his hand upon the head of the sin offering, and slay it for a sin offering in the place where they kill the burnt offering.

BN: And he shall lay his hand on the head of the sin-offering, and kill it for a sin-offering in the place where they kill the burnt-offering.


Once again, the bringer not the Kohen performs the slaughter.


4:34 VE LAKACH HA KOHEN MI DAM HA CHATA'T BE ETSBA'O VE NATAN AL KARNOT MIZBACH HA OLAH VE ET KOL DAMAH YISHPOCH EL YESOD HA MIZBE'ACH



וְלָקַח הַכֹּהֵן מִדַּם הַחַטָּאת בְּאֶצְבָּעוֹ וְנָתַן עַל קַרְנֹת מִזְבַּח הָעֹלָה וְאֶת כָּל דָּמָהּ יִשְׁפֹּךְ אֶל יְסוֹד הַמִּזְבֵּחַ

KJ: And the priest shall take of the blood of the sin offering with his finger, and put itupon the horns of the altar of burnt offering, and shall pour out all the blood thereof at the bottom of the altar:

BN: And the Kohen shall take some of the blood of the sin-offering with his finger, and put it on the horns of the altar of burnt-offering, and all the remainder of its blood he shall pour out at the base of the altar.


4:35 VE ET KOL CHELBAH YASIR KA ASHER YUSAR CHELEV HA KESEV MI ZEVACH HA SHELAMIM VE HIKTIR HA KOHEN OTAM HA MIZBECHAH AL ISHEY YHVH VE CHIPER ALAV HA KOHEN AL CHATA'TO ASHER CHATA VE NISLACH LO



וְאֶת כָּל חֶלְבָּהּ יָסִיר כַּאֲשֶׁר יוּסַר חֵלֶב הַכֶּשֶׂב מִזֶּבַח הַשְּׁלָמִים וְהִקְטִיר הַכֹּהֵן אֹתָם הַמִּזְבֵּחָה עַל אִשֵּׁי יְהוָה וְכִפֶּר עָלָיו הַכֹּהֵן עַל חַטָּאתוֹ אֲשֶׁר חָטָא וְנִסְלַח לוֹ

KJ: And he shall take away all the fat thereof, as the fat of the lamb is taken away from the sacrifice of the peace offerings; and the priest shall burn them upon the altar, according to the offerings made by fire unto the LORD: and the priest shall make an atonement for his sin that he hath committed, and it shall be forgiven him.

BN: And he shall remove all of its fat, as the fat of the lamb is removed from the peace-offering sacrifice; and the Kohen shall make them smoke on the altar, on the burnt offerings for YHVH; and the Kohen shall make atonement for him in the matter of the sin that he has committed, and he shall be forgiven.


Our dyslectic KESEV makes another appearance!

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Leviticus 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27


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