KJ: If his offering be a burnt
sacrifice of the herd, let him offer a male without blemish: he shall offer it
of his own voluntary will at the door of the tabernacle of the congregation
before the LORD.
BN: If his offering is a burnt-offering from the herd, he shall offer a male without blemish; he shall bring it to the door of the tent of meeting, that it may be accepted by YHVH.
LIRTSONO: That "he" may be accepted, or that "it" may be accepted; there is world of difference between these two, and the phrasing of the Yehudit allows both. Is he bringing the animal because he wants to feed his family, and needs the god's permission to kill a sacred creature - which is one of the key purposes of sacrifice: "making sacred"? Or is he bringing the animal as a pure offering, to propitiate the deity for his sins? This is where the laws of sacrifice are needed, and we will see in the coming pages the distinctions between peace-offerings, sin-offerings, libation-offerings, burnt-offerings, etc. This one is a KURBAN, a burnt-offering, a purgation of sin - he will not be permitted to eat any of it.
1:4 VE SAMACH YADO AL ROSH HA OLAH VE NIRTSAH LO LECHAPER ALAV
KJ: And he shall kill the
bullock before the LORD: and the priests, Aaron's sons, shall bring the blood,
and sprinkle the blood round about upon the altar that is by the door
of the tabernacle of the congregation.
BN: And he shall kill the bullock before YHVH; and Aharon's sons, the Kohanim, shall present the blood, and dash the blood all around the altar that is at the door of the tent of meeting.
The suggestion appears to be that the person bringing the animal for sacrifice conducts the killing himself, but that Aharon's sons perform the sprinkling of the blood. Logical enough, as it is his personal offering and purgation; he takes responsibility for the execution.
1:6 VE HIPHSHIT ET HA OLAH VE NITACH OTAH LINTACHEYHA
KJ: And he shall kill it
on the side of the altar northward before the LORD: and the priests, Aaron's
sons, shall sprinkle his blood round about upon the altar.
BN: And he shall slaughter it on the north side of the altar before YHVH; and Aaron's sons, the Kohanim, shall dash its blood all around the altar.
The bullock was sacrificed on the altar outside the Tent of Meeting, but no compass-point is given ("at the door" - verse 3). The sheep and goats, even when they are burnt offerings, are specifically slaughtered on the north side of the altar, which is the same side that the women wailed for Tammuz in the Temple (Ezekiel 8:14). We can presume that originally different totem animals were slaughtered for different gods, and that this is why different places on the altar, or in the Courtyard, were denoted.
Once again the text appears to infer that the bringer and not the Kohen performed the sacrifice, though this was never the case in the epoch of the Temple.
1:12 VE NITACH OTO LIN'TACHAV VE ET ROSHO VE ET PIDRO VE ARACH HA KOHEN OTAM AL HA ETSIM ASHER AL HA ESH ASHER AL HA MIZBE'ACH
KJ: But he shall wash the
inwards and the legs with water: and the priest shall bring itall, and burn it upon the
altar: it is a burnt
sacrifice, an offering made by fire, of a sweet savour unto the LORD.
BN: But the innards and the legs he shall wash with water; and the Kohen shall offer the whole, and make it smoke on the altar; it is a burnt-offering, an offering made by fire, of a sweet savour to YHVH.
Are there any other differences between the bull and sheep-goat sacrifices? If not, why bother to describe the same thing twice?
1:14 VE IM MIN HA OPH OLAH KARBANO LA YHVH VE HIKRIV MIN HA TORIM O MIN BENEY HA YONAH ET KARBANO
KJ: And if the burnt
sacrifice for his offering to the LORD be of
fowls, then he shall bring his offering of turtledoves, or of young pigeons.
BN: And if his offering to YHVH is a burnt-offering of fowls, then he shall bring for his offering either turtle-doves or young pigeons.
Why turtle-doves and pigeons? To the Greeks this was Athena's totem-bird, even before the owl; and she the goddess of Wisdom. Arcadian, Kena'ani (Canaanite), Aramaean, and Arab peoples all used the same birds for sacrifice, and it was revered as holy among Sumerians, Akkadians, Assyrians, Phoenicians, Mitsrim (Egyptians), as well as Persians, Hindus and, later, the Mohammedans. The first archaeological evidence depicting doves as a spiritual animal dates back to 5000 BCE, with the Sumerian goddess, Astarte. Her worship as a god of war was widespread throughout the Middle East and Mitsrayim. Numerous artifacts show her accompanied by white doves, which were believed to help guide her on her journeys. Images of the dove adorned the roof and walls of Astarte's temple located in the Beit She'an region of Yisra-El, in the temple where the Pelishtim (Philistines) deposited the armour of Sha'ul after he was slain. Recent excavation of this site has produced many small shrines bearing the symbol of the dove. Ctesias and Lucian both assert that the the Ashurim (Assyrians) worshipped doves and abstained from harming them as beings of a sacred nature. Xenophon (455-366 BCE) in "Anabasis", refers to the Assyrian's regard for them as holy. Latin writers also discussed this veneration. In his Eighth Elegy, Tibullus wrote: "Why need I tell how the sacred white pigeon flutters unmolested about the numerous cities of Syrian Palestine?" The turtle-dove later entered Christianity associated with Mary.
See also Leviticus 12:6: "And when the days of her purifying are fulfilled, for a son, or for a daughter, she shall bring a lamb of the first year for a burnt offering, and a young pigeon, or a turtledove, for a sin offering." Leviticus 14:21-22: "And if he be poor, and cannot get so much; then he shall take... and two turtledoves, or two young pigeons, such as he is able to get; and the one shall be a sin offering, and the other a burnt offering." In the rites and sacrifices for the cleansing of the leper, pigeons and doves were designated as suitable. We also find in the law of the Nazirite, in his separation, that pigeons were delineated for sin and burnt offerings: "And on the eighth day he shall bring two turtledoves, or two young pigeons, to the priest, to the door of the tabernacle of the congregation. And the priest shall offer the one for a sin offering, and the other for a burnt offering, and make an atonement for him, for that he sinned by the dead, and shall hallow his head that same day." (Numbers 6:10-11)
Av-Raham was ordered to use them in Genesis 15:9: "And he said to him, 'Take me a heifer of three years old, and a she goat of three years old, and a ram of three years old, and a turtledove, and a young pigeon'." The dove was one of the two birds sent by No'ach from the Ark (Genesis 8:8), and the dove was as an emblem of peace, purity, tenderness and affection long before Picasso. The Song of Solomon and the Psalms have a number of such references: Psalm 68:13: "When you lie down among the sheepfolds, you shall be as the wings of a dove covered with silver, and her feathers with yellow gold." Song of Solomon 2:12: "The flowers have already appeared in the land; the time has arrived for pruning the vines, and the voice of the turtledove has been heard in our land." In Isaiah 60:8:"Who are these that fly as a cloud, and as the doves to their windows?" which suggests that the Beney Yisra-El raised pigeons and doves domestically.
1:15 VE HIKRIYVO HA KOHEN EL HA MIZBE'ACH U MALAK ET ROSHO VE HIKTIR HA MIZBECHAH VE NIMTSAH DAMO AL KIR HA MIZBE'ACH
KJ: And he shall pluck
away his crop with his feathers, and cast it beside the altar on the east part,
by the place of the ashes:
BN: And he shall remove its crop, with the feathers that are on the crop, and throw it down among the ashes on the east side of the altar.
MUR'ATO: To understand what the "crop" is, click here. Because birds use the crop to store food, it constitutes an anomaly: you might be unintentionally sacrificing weasel or worm, which is not what YHVH requires, and which therefore blemishes the offering. Digested food in the bird's stomach is also a problem, but as the "lights" are never eaten anyway, and the animal in the bowel is already consumed, this appears to have constituted a sufficient difference.
1:17 VE SHISA OTO VICHNAPHAV LO YAVDIL VE HIKTIR OTO HA KOHEN HA MIZBECHAH AL HA ETSIM ASHER AL HA ESH OLAH HU ISHEH REYACH NIYCHO'ACH LA YHVH
KJ: And he shall cleave it
with the wings thereof, but shall not
divide it asunder:
and the priest shall burn it upon the altar, upon the wood that is upon the
fire: it is a burnt
sacrifice, an offering made by fire, of a sweet savour unto the LORD.
BN: And he shall rend it by its wings, but he shall not divide it asunder; and the Kohen shall make it smoke on the altar, on the wood that is upon the fire; it is a burnt-offering, an offering made by fire, of a sweet savour to YHVH.
The wings have to be separated from the body in order to achieve the level of flatness required for the bird to be set on the altar and burned; this is logistics. In pulling the wings apart, there is no reason to break the bones and tear the flesh; this is cruelty.