Leviticus 1:1-17

Leviticus 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27



VA-YIKRA - THE BOOK OF LEVITICUS

Sedra One, Va-Yikra

Leviticus 1:1 – 5:26


illustration courtesy of Literary Joe
1:1 VA YIKRA EL MOSHEH VA YEDABER YHVH ELAV ME OHEL MO'ED LEMOR

וַיִּקְרָא אֶל מֹשֶׁה וַיְדַבֵּר יְהוָה אֵלָיו מֵאֹהֶל מוֹעֵד לֵאמֹר

KJ (King James translation): And the LORD called unto Moses, and spake unto him out of the tabernacle of the congregation, saying,

BN (BibleNet translation)Then YHVH called to Mosheh, and spoke to him from out of the tent of meeting, saying:




1:2 DABER EL BENEY YISRA-EL VE AMARTA AL'EHEM ADAM KI YAKRIV MIKEM KARBAN LA YHVH MIN HA BEHEMAH MIN HA BAKAR U MIN HA TSON TAKRIYVU ET KARBANCHEM

דַּבֵּר אֶל בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וְאָמַרְתָּ אֲלֵהֶם אָדָם כִּי יַקְרִיב מִכֶּם קָרְבָּן לַיהוָה מִן הַבְּהֵמָה מִן הַבָּקָר וּמִן הַצֹּאן תַּקְרִיבוּ אֶת קָרְבַּנְכֶם

KJ: Speak unto the children of Israel, and say unto them, If any man of you bring an offering unto the LORD, ye shall bring your offering of the cattle, even of the herd, and of the flock.

BN: Speak to the Beney Yisra-El, and say to them: When any man from among you brings an offering to YHVH, you shall bring your offering from your livestock, whether of the herd or of the flock.


1:3 IM OLAH KARBANO MIN HA BAKAR ZACHAR TAMIM YAKRIYVENU EL PETACH OHEL MO'ED YAKRIV OTO LIRTSONO LIPHNEY YHVH

אִם עֹלָה קָרְבָּנוֹ מִן הַבָּקָר זָכָר תָּמִים יַקְרִיבֶנּוּ אֶל פֶּתַח אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד יַקְרִיב אֹתוֹ לִרְצֹנוֹ לִפְנֵי יְהוָה

KJ: If his offering be a burnt sacrifice of the herd, let him offer a male without blemish: he shall offer it of his own voluntary will at the door of the tabernacle of the congregation before the LORD.

BN: If his offering is a burnt-offering from the herd, he shall offer a male without blemish; he shall bring it to the door of the tent of meeting, that it may be accepted by YHVH.


LIRTSONO: That "he" may be accepted, or that "it" may be accepted; there is  world of difference between these two, and the phrasing of the Yehudit allows both. Is he bringing the animal because he wants to feed his family, and needs the god's permission to kill a sacred creature - which is one of the key purposes of sacrifice: "making sacred"? Or is he bringing the animal as a pure offering, to propitiate the deity for his sins? This is where the laws of sacrifice are needed, and we will see in the coming pages the distinctions between peace-offerings, sin-offerings, libation-offerings, burnt-offerings, etc. This one is a KURBAN, a burnt-offering, a purgation of sin - he will not be permitted to eat any of it.

1:4 VE SAMACH YADO AL ROSH HA OLAH VE NIRTSAH LO LECHAPER ALAV

וְסָמַךְ יָדוֹ עַל רֹאשׁ הָעֹלָה וְנִרְצָה לוֹ לְכַפֵּר עָלָיו

KJ: And he shall put his hand upon the head of the burnt offering; and it shall be accepted for him to make atonement for him.

BN: And he shall lay his hand on the head of the burnt-offering; and it shall be accepted for him, to make atonement for him.


NIRTSAH: "It" will be accepted; a surrogate for the death-penalty.



1:5 VE SHACHAT ET BEN HA BAKAR LIPHNEY YHVH HE HIKRIYVU BENEY AHARON HA KOHANIM ET HA DAM VE ZARKU ET HA DAM AL HA MIZBE'ACH SAVIV ASHER PETACH OHEL MO'ED

וְשָׁחַט אֶת בֶּן הַבָּקָר לִפְנֵי יְהוָה וְהִקְרִיבוּ בְּנֵי אַהֲרֹן הַכֹּהֲנִים אֶת הַדָּם וְזָרְקוּ אֶת הַדָּם עַל הַמִּזְבֵּחַ סָבִיב אֲשֶׁר פֶּתַח אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד

KJ: And he shall kill the bullock before the LORD: and the priests, Aaron's sons, shall bring the blood, and sprinkle the blood round about upon the altar that is by the door of the tabernacle of the congregation.

BN: And he shall kill the bullock before YHVH; and Aharon's sons, the Kohanim, shall present the blood, and dash the blood all around the altar that is at the door of the tent of meeting.


The suggestion appears to be that the person bringing the animal for sacrifice conducts the killing himself, but that Aharon's sons perform the sprinkling of the blood. Logical enough, as it is his personal offering and purgation; he takes responsibility for the execution.


1:6 VE HIPHSHIT ET HA OLAH VE NITACH OTAH LINTACHEYHA

וְהִפְשִׁיט אֶת הָעֹלָה וְנִתַּח אֹתָהּ לִנְתָחֶיהָ

KJ: And he shall flay the burnt offering, and cut it into his pieces.

BN: And he shall flay the burnt-offering, and cut it into its pieces.

 

Again, the bringer.


1:7 VE NATNU BENEY AHARON HA KOHEN ESH AL HA MIZBE'ACH VE ARCHU ETSIM AL HA ESH

וְנָתְנוּ בְּנֵי אַהֲרֹן הַכֹּהֵן אֵשׁ עַל הַמִּזְבֵּחַ וְעָרְכוּ עֵצִים עַל הָאֵשׁ

KJ: And the sons of Aaron the priest shall put fire upon the altar, and lay the wood in order upon the fire:

BN: And the sons of Aharon the Kohen shall set the fire on the altar, and set out the wood on the fire.


We are not told what pattern the wood should have, but the inference of this verse is that there was one.


1:8 VE ARCHU BENEY AHARON HA KOHANIM ET HA NETACHIM ET HA ROSH VE ET HA PADER AL HA ETSIM ASHER AL HA ESH ASHER AL HA MIZBE'ACH

וְעָרְכוּ בְּנֵי אַהֲרֹן הַכֹּהֲנִים אֵת הַנְּתָחִים אֶת הָרֹאשׁ וְאֶת הַפָּדֶר עַל הָעֵצִים אֲשֶׁר עַל הָאֵשׁ אֲשֶׁר עַל הַמִּזְבֵּחַ

KJ: And the priests, Aaron's sons, shall lay the parts, the head, and the fat, in order upon the wood that is on the fire which is upon the altar:

BN: And Aharon's sons, the Kohanim, shall lay the pieces, and the head, and the fat, in order on the wood that is on the fire which is on the altar.


Again, a schema must have been ordained at some point, but we are not told what it was.


1:9 VE KIRBO U CHERA'AV YIRCHATS BA MAYIM VE HIKTIR HA KOHEN ET HA KOL HA MIZBECHAH OLAH ISHEH REYACH NIYCHO'ACH LA YHVH

וְקִרְבּוֹ וּכְרָעָיו יִרְחַץ בַּמָּיִם וְהִקְטִיר הַכֹּהֵן אֶת הַכֹּל הַמִּזְבֵּחָה עֹלָה אִשֵּׁה רֵיחַ נִיחוֹחַ לַיהוָה

KJ: But his inwards and his legs shall he wash in water: and the priest shall burn all on the altar, to be a burnt sacrifice, an offering made by fire, of a sweet savour unto the LORD.

BN: But its innards and its legs he shall wash with water; and the Kohen shall make the whole of it smoke on the altar, for a burnt-offering, an offering made by fire, of a sweet savour to YHVH.

 

Once again confirming that it is the aromas that the god always prefers.

samech break


1:10 VE IM MIN HA TSON KARBANO MIN HA KESAVIM O MIN HA IZIM LE OLAH ZACHAR TAMIM YAKRIVENU

וְאִם מִן הַצֹּאן קָרְבָּנוֹ מִן הַכְּשָׂבִים אוֹ מִן הָעִזִּים לְעֹלָה זָכָר תָּמִים יַקְרִיבֶנּוּ

KJ: And if his offering be of the flocks, namely, of the sheep, or of the goats, for a burnt sacrifice; he shall bring it a male without blemish.

BN: And if his offering for a burnt-offering comes from the flock, whether of the sheep, or of the goats, he shall offer a male without blemish.


KESAVIM: We have pointed out this error many times previously: KEVASIM is what it should say. A dyslectic scribe, many millennia ago!


1:11 VE SHACHAT OTO AL YERECH HA MIZBE'ACH TSAPHONAH LIPHNEY YHVH VE ZARKU BENEY AHARON HA KOHANIM ET DAMO AL HA MIZBE'ACH SAVIV

וְשָׁחַט אֹתוֹ עַל יֶרֶךְ הַמִּזְבֵּחַ צָפֹנָה לִפְנֵי יְהוָה וְזָרְקוּ בְּנֵי אַהֲרֹן הַכֹּהֲנִים אֶת דָּמוֹ עַל הַמִּזְבֵּחַ סָבִיב

KJ: And he shall kill it on the side of the altar northward before the LORD: and the priests, Aaron's sons, shall sprinkle his blood round about upon the altar.

BN: And he shall slaughter it on the north side of the altar before YHVH; and Aaron's sons, the Kohanim, shall dash its blood all around the altar.


The bullock was sacrificed on the altar outside the Tent of Meeting, but no compass-point is given ("at the door" - verse 3). The sheep and goats, even when they are burnt offerings, are specifically slaughtered on the north side of the altar, which is the same side that the women wailed for Tammuz in the Temple (Ezekiel 8:14). We can presume that originally different totem animals were slaughtered for different gods, and that this is why different places on the altar, or in the Courtyard, were denoted.

Once again the text appears to infer that the bringer and not the Kohen performed the sacrifice, though this was never the case in the epoch of the Temple.


1:12 VE NITACH OTO LIN'TACHAV VE ET ROSHO VE ET PIDRO VE ARACH HA KOHEN OTAM AL HA ETSIM ASHER AL HA ESH ASHER AL HA MIZBE'ACH

וְנִתַּח אֹתוֹ לִנְתָחָיו וְאֶת רֹאשׁוֹ וְאֶת פִּדְרוֹ וְעָרַךְ הַכֹּהֵן אֹתָם עַל הָעֵצִים אֲשֶׁר עַל הָאֵשׁ אֲשֶׁר עַל הַמִּזְבֵּחַ

KJ: And he shall cut it into his pieces, with his head and his fat: and the priest shall lay them in order on the wood that is on the fire which is upon the altar:

BN: And he shall cut it into its pieces; and the Kohen shall lay them, with its head and its fat, in order on the wood that is on the fire which is on the altar.


1:13 VE HA KEREV VE HA KERA'AYIM YIRCHATS BA MAYIM VE HIKRIV HA KOHEN ET HA KOL VE HIKTIR HA MIZBECHAH OLAH HU ISHEH REYACH NIYCHO'ACH LA YHVH

וְהַקֶּרֶב וְהַכְּרָעַיִם יִרְחַץ בַּמָּיִם וְהִקְרִיב הַכֹּהֵן אֶת הַכֹּל וְהִקְטִיר הַמִּזְבֵּחָה עֹלָה הוּא אִשֵּׁה רֵיחַ נִיחֹחַ לַיהוָה

KJ: But he shall wash the inwards and the legs with water: and the priest shall bring itall, and burn it upon the altar: it is a burnt sacrifice, an offering made by fire, of a sweet savour unto the LORD.

BN: But the innards and the legs he shall wash with water; and the Kohen shall offer the whole, and make it smoke on the altar; it is a burnt-offering, an offering made by fire, of a sweet savour to YHVH.

 

Are there any other differences between the bull and sheep-goat sacrifices? If not, why bother to describe the same thing twice?

pey break


1:14 VE IM MIN HA OPH OLAH KARBANO LA YHVH VE HIKRIV MIN HA TORIM O MIN BENEY HA YONAH ET KARBANO

וְאִם מִן הָעוֹף עֹלָה קָרְבָּנוֹ לַיהוָה וְהִקְרִיב מִן הַתֹּרִים אוֹ מִן בְּנֵי הַיּוֹנָה אֶת קָרְבָּנוֹ

KJ: And if the burnt sacrifice for his offering to the LORD be of fowls, then he shall bring his offering of turtledoves, or of young pigeons.

BN: And if his offering to YHVH is a burnt-offering of fowls, then he shall bring for his offering either turtle-doves or young pigeons.


Why turtle-doves and pigeons? To the Greeks this was Athena's totem-bird, even before the owl; and she the goddess of Wisdom. Arcadian, Kena'ani (Canaanite), Aramaean, and Arab peoples all used the same birds for sacrifice, and it was revered as holy among Sumerians, Akkadians, AssyriansPhoenicians, Mitsrim (Egyptians), as well as Persians, Hindus and, later, the Mohammedans. The first archaeological evidence depicting doves as a spiritual animal dates back to 5000 BCE, with the Sumerian goddess, Astarte. Her worship as a god of war was widespread throughout the Middle East and Mitsrayim. Numerous artifacts show her accompanied by white doves, which were believed to help guide her on her journeys. Images of the dove adorned the roof and walls of Astarte's temple located in the Beit She'an region of Yisra-El, in the temple where the Pelishtim (Philistines) deposited the armour of Sha'ul after he was slain. Recent excavation of this site has produced many small shrines bearing the symbol of the dove. Ctesias and Lucian both assert that the the Ashurim (Assyrians) worshipped doves and abstained from harming them as beings of a sacred nature. Xenophon (455-366 BCE) in "Anabasis", refers to the Assyrian's regard for them as holy. Latin writers also discussed this veneration. In his Eighth Elegy, Tibullus wrote: "Why need I tell how the sacred white pigeon flutters unmolested about the numerous cities of Syrian Palestine?" The turtle-dove later entered Christianity associated with Mary.

See also Leviticus 12:6: "And when the days of her purifying are fulfilled, for a son, or for a daughter, she shall bring a lamb of the first year for a burnt offering, and a young pigeon, or a turtledove, for a sin offering." Leviticus 14:21-22: "And if he be poor, and cannot get so much; then he shall take... and two turtledoves, or two young pigeons, such as he is able to get; and the one shall be a sin offering, and the other a burnt offering." In the rites and sacrifices for the cleansing of the leper, pigeons and doves were designated as suitable. We also find in the law of the Nazirite, in his separation, that pigeons were delineated for sin and burnt offerings: "And on the eighth day he shall bring two turtledoves, or two young pigeons, to the priest, to the door of the tabernacle of the congregation. And the priest shall offer the one for a sin offering, and the other for a burnt offering, and make an atonement for him, for that he sinned by the dead, and shall hallow his head that same day." (Numbers 6:10-11)

Av-Raham was ordered to use them in Genesis 15:9: "And he said to him, 'Take me a heifer of three years old, and a she goat of three years old, and a ram of three years old, and a turtledove, and a young pigeon'." The dove was one of the two birds sent by No'ach from the Ark (Genesis 8:8), and the dove was as an emblem of peace, purity, tenderness and affection long before Picasso. The Song of Solomon and the Psalms have a number of such references: Psalm 68:13: "When you lie down among the sheepfolds, you shall be as the wings of a dove covered with silver, and her feathers with yellow gold." Song of Solomon 2:12"The flowers have already appeared in the land; the time has arrived for pruning the vines, and the voice of the turtledove has been heard in our land." In Isaiah 60:8:"Who are these that fly as a cloud, and as the doves to their windows?" which suggests that the Beney Yisra-El raised pigeons and doves domestically.


1:15 VE HIKRIYVO HA KOHEN EL HA MIZBE'ACH U MALAK ET ROSHO VE HIKTIR HA MIZBECHAH VE NIMTSAH DAMO AL KIR HA MIZBE'ACH

וְהִקְרִיבוֹ הַכֹּהֵן אֶל הַמִּזְבֵּחַ וּמָלַק אֶת רֹאשׁוֹ וְהִקְטִיר הַמִּזְבֵּחָה וְנִמְצָה דָמוֹ עַל קִיר הַמִּזְבֵּחַ

KJ: And the priest shall bring it unto the altar, and wring off his head, and burn it on the altar; and the blood thereof shall be wrung out at the side of the altar:

BN: And the Kohen shall bring it to the altar, and pinch off its head, and make it smoke on the altar; and its blood shall be drained out on the side of the altar.


1:16 VE HESIR ET MUR'ATO BE NOTSATAH VE HISHLICH OTAH ETSEL HA MIZBE'ACH KEDMAH EL MEKOM HA DASHEN

וְהֵסִיר אֶת מֻרְאָתוֹ בְּנֹצָתָהּ וְהִשְׁלִיךְ אֹתָהּ אֵצֶל הַמִּזְבֵּחַ קֵדְמָה אֶל מְקוֹם הַדָּשֶׁן

KJ: And he shall pluck away his crop with his feathers, and cast it beside the altar on the east part, by the place of the ashes:

BN: And he shall remove its crop, with the feathers that are on the crop, and throw it down among the ashes on the east side of the altar.


MUR'ATO: To understand what the "crop" is, click here. Because birds use the crop to store food, it constitutes an anomaly: you might be unintentionally sacrificing weasel or worm, which is not what YHVH requires, and which therefore blemishes the offering. Digested food in the bird's stomach is also a problem, but as the "lights" are never eaten anyway, and the animal in the bowel is already consumed, this appears to have constituted a sufficient difference.


1:17 VE SHISA OTO VICHNAPHAV LO YAVDIL VE HIKTIR OTO HA KOHEN HA MIZBECHAH AL HA ETSIM ASHER AL HA ESH OLAH HU ISHEH REYACH NIYCHO'ACH LA YHVH

וְשִׁסַּע אֹתוֹ בִכְנָפָיו לֹא יַבְדִּיל וְהִקְטִיר אֹתוֹ הַכֹּהֵן הַמִּזְבֵּחָה עַל הָעֵצִים אֲשֶׁר עַל הָאֵשׁ עֹלָה הוּא אִשֵּׁה רֵיחַ נִיחֹחַ לַיהוָה

KJ: And he shall cleave it with the wings thereof, but shall not divide it asunder: and the priest shall burn it upon the altar, upon the wood that is upon the fire: it is a burnt sacrifice, an offering made by fire, of a sweet savour unto the LORD.

BN: And he shall rend it by its wings, but he shall not divide it asunder; and the Kohen shall make it smoke on the altar, on the wood that is upon the fire; it is a burnt-offering, an offering made by fire, of a sweet savour to YHVH.

The wings have to be separated from the body in order to achieve the level of flatness required for the bird to be set on the altar and burned; this is logistics. In pulling the wings apart, there is no reason to break the bones and tear the flesh; this is cruelty.

samech break


Leviticus 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27



Copyright © 2017 David Prashker

All rights reserved

The Argaman Press

No comments:

Post a Comment